Trance and other altered states of consciousness are strongly associated with healing practices of shamans, a subset of magico-religious healers. Burger, Richard L. 2011. Created by. Learn more about this concept with examples and test your knowledge with a quiz. Much fascination surrounds the role … Treatment and care. Drums – The drum is used by shamans of several peoples in Siberia. In the course of their healing others, healers in simpler societies employ non-possession trances; healers in more complex societies are more likely to use possession trance (Shaara and Strathern 1992). Particular dream elements may appear and give the dreamer the right to assume certain culturally-restricted roles. Blog. An altered state of consciousness is a temporary change in one's normal mental state without being considered unconscious. Rolle, Renate, and Gayna Walls. Exercises Using eHRAF World Cultures. The operative word is “might”: a guardian spirit is not compelled to give gifts of power to a particular person, nor to continue to do so. Altered States of Consciousness in Human History: A Brief Overview, Examples of ASCs in the Archaeological Record. ———. There is evidence for shared physiological processes during different forms of trance as well as other ASCs (Winkelman 1986). If the effect of political hierarchy is controlled, societies where people are more involved in decision-making are less likely to have possession trances (Bourguignon and Evascu 1977; Swanson 1978). “Trance States: A Theoretical Model and Cross-Cultural Analysis.” Ethos 14 (2): 174–203. There is a current view that accepts the existence of different levels of reality, according to the state of consciousness (level) which an individual is in at the moment. Swanson, Guy E. 1973. 1968. London: B. T. Batsford. ———. The contributors describe the successful use of altered states and their therapeutic potential, providing examples from different cultures and clinical, therapeutic … Literally an altered state deviating from ones normal mental state. Read the full summary here. 1st ed. Religious experts often use their dreams to divine or perform cures. 80% of the cultures surveyed believe that dreaming is the primary state in which out-of-body experiences occur (Shields 1978). Ember, Carol R., Christina Carolus. 755 Prospect Street https://doi.org/10.1093/yycercor/bhv137. “The Search for a Guardian Spirit: A Process of Empowerment in Simpler Societies.” Ethnology 12 (3): 359–78. Cambridge, Ma: Schenkman Publihing Company. Altered states of consciousness | Tart, Charles T. | ISBN: 9780385067287 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. It has also been observed in all studied mammals such as cats, dogs, and monkeys. In many human societies, people use dreams to seek and control supernatural power, information or aid. However the methods, functions, and cultural context vary widely between societies. Rudenko, S. I. “Shamans And Other ‘Magico-Religious’ Healers: A Cross-Cultural Study Of Their Origins, Nature, And Social Transformations.” Ethos 18 (3): 308–52. trance and possession states, lucid dreaming, visions, and drug-induced states. Van Dijk, Robert Turner, Peter E. Keller, and Björn Merker. In one cross-cultural survey of 488 societies, 90% had some kind of cultural trance behavior or belief (Bourguignon 1968; Bourguignon and Evascu 1977). Hunter-gatherers are more likely to use dreams to seek and control supernatural power than food producers. Trance behavior is always associated with the training of magico-religious healers (Winkelman 1990). 2017. Altered-state theory occurs when a person is actually hypnotized and is therefore in a different, or altered, state of mind. Read more about diagnosing disorders of consciousness. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Citation. In this article, the issue of shamanism and altered states of conscio usness (ASC) is reviewed from a cross-cultural and multidisciplinary perspective. Humanity's encounter with the mystical and the evolution of the phenomenon of Shamanism, religion and culture itself, is perhaps due to a consumption psychedelic compounds in the form of mushrooms and plants hundreds of thousands of years … How to increase brand awareness through consistency; Dec. 11, 2020 Frequently persons in these states appear to be in a … Bourguignon, Erika, and Thomas Evascu. Henshilwood, Christopher S, Erico d’Errico, Royden Yates, Zenobia Jacobs, Chantal Tribolo, Geoff A. T. Duller, Norbert Mercier, et al. 2015). Barry, Herbert, III, Irvin L. Child, and Margaret K. Bacon. Those are a few examples of what happens when you lose consciousness. Consequently, case studies that deal with altered states of consciousness do not always include com-parable information. Scholars suggest that in a number of pre-Columbian Andean cultures, “social linkage…revolved intensely around cults and shared religious experience” that may often have been brokered by religious specialists who included wakeful hallucinogen-induced ASC as an important part of their spiritual repertoire (Kolata 1993, 272; Burger 2011). Watson, Aaron. Its mission is to encourage and facilitate the cross-cultural study of human culture, society and behavior in the past and present. It’s not that difficult to alter your consciousness. The term “altered state of consciousness” (ASC and plural ASCs) became prominent in the 1960s as a replacement for terms such as “ecstasy,” “trance,” “hallucination,” and “mystical experience” to describe conditions (states of consciousness) that are qualitatively different from “ordinary” or “baseline” states of consciousness. However the methods, functions, and cultural context vary widely between societies. More complex societies, that is, those with higher political integration, more dependence on agriculture, more dependence on food production, more permanent communities, and more social stratification, are more likely to have possession trances. Nearly all societies are known to engage in practices that lead to altered states of consciousness. If sleeping is the induction method, trance usually involves a nonpossession trance such as a soul journey. The anthropologist David Lewis-Williams has made the convincing argument that these cave and rock-shelter paintings were produced by shamanic cultures to represent reality as perceived in an altered state of consciousness. Human consciousness can be altered in a number of different ways including through hypnosis, with drugs, and mental exercises. The Megalithic Art Of Western Europe. He suggested that ‘consciousness of death is the primary repression, not sexuality’ as Sigmund Freud had popularised. ———. Leary, Alpert and Metzner, before and after LSD. Altered states of consciousness provide a … Simpler societies, such as most hunter-gatherers are more likely to only have non-possession trances (Bourguignon 1976; Greenbaum 1973; Swanson 1978). 1993. Terms in this set (27) What is the meaning of ASC? 2002). Abstract. ———. Normal daily consciousness (the ordinary state of consciousness) gives access to an ordinary reality, Cultural expectations, inhibitions, negative experiences, the adoption of a self-image (persona) become so real in the waking state that they become difficult to transcend. : Stanford University Press. What predicts the guardian spirit complex or vision quest? … Blog. https://doi.org/10.1179/naw.2011.31.2.123. Moreover, these types of induction methods rarely are associated with possession trance (Winkelman 1986). All experience is embedded in … Frozen Tombs of Siberia: The Pazyryk Burials of Iron Age Horsemen. Dec. 30, 2020. The type of trance generally varies with social complexity. Even without imbibing any substances, you can alter your consciousness by doing various activities, like yoga, meditation, or with a simple walk in the woods. May induce emotions like fear/anxiety, well-being, connection to supernatural entities. 1978. States of Consciousness By Robert Biswas-Diener and Jake Teeny. Shields, Dean. There is a current view that accepts the existence of different levels of reality, according to the state of consciousness (level) which an individual is in at the moment. It is a great misfortune or misunderstanding that in our Western culture, people seek such experiences often for no other reason than ‘an experience – a trip’, something … Like all altered and transitional states of consciousness, mystical occurrences can lead to transformative life changes (Wulff, 2014). ), which have been found charred in vessels and pouches accompanying burials and were described by the Greek historian Herodotus (5th century BCE) as part of a consciousness-altering repertoire for spiritual purification (Rudenko and Thompson 1970; Rolle and Walls 1989). “Anthropological Studies of Dreams.” In Psychological Anthropology: Approaches to Culture and Personality, edited by Francis L. K. Hsu, 296–332. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. An Iconographic Identification.” Journal of Andean Archaeology 31 (2): 123–40. Pre-Columbian Maya society ritually consumed balché, a mead-like drink made with the hallucinogenic plant Longocarpus longistylus. Note that there can be possession beliefs without trance behavior, such as when illnesses are believed to be caused by invading spirits (Bourguignon 1976; Bourguignon and Evascu 1977). We argue that these traditional definitions fail to draw a clear line between altered and normal states of consciousness (NSC). The cultural anthropologist Ernest Becker argued in The Denial of Death (1973) that human civilisation is ultimately a symbolic defence mechanism against the awareness of our finite existence. Particular dream elements may appear and give the dreamer the right to assume certain culturally-restricted roles. Niautoputapu: The Prehistory of a Polynesian Chiefdom. Unconscious denial of death can have a demoralising effect … “Societal Correlates of Possession Trance in Sub-Saharan Africa.” In Religion, Altered States Of Consciousness, And Social Change, edited by Erika Bourguignon, 39–57. 1978. Chandler & Sharp Series in Cross-Cultural Themes. Entoptically-suggestive art (that is, art composed of motifs indicating sensory deprivation and commonly-associated forms of visual hallucination) can be seen as early as 70,000-100,000 years ago at Blombos Cave in South Africa (Henshilwood et al. Spell. : Dorsey Press. Luisa Prochazkova, Bernhard Hommel, in Creativity and the Wandering Mind, 2020. Altered-state theory occurs when a person is actually hypnotized and is therefore in a different, or altered, state of mind. San Francisco, Ca: Chandler & Sharp Publishers. Normal daily consciousness (the ordinary state of consciousness) gives access to an ordinary reality, Explore some texts and do some comparisons using the eHRAF World Cultures database. Dreaming during sleep is believed to be a universal human characteristic. The guardian spirit complex is associated with hunting and fishing as a means of subsistence. Among shamans, trances are usually induced by mechanisms such as singing, chanting, drumming, or dancing, after which the shaman in training or practice collapses and becomes unconscious and has intense visual experiences. “On Vision And Power In The Neolithic: Evidence From The Decorated Monuments.” Current Anthropology 34 (1): 55–65. Twohig, Elizabeth Shee. altered states of consciousness and mental health a cross cultural perspective cross cultural research and methodology Nov 25, 2020 Posted By Roger Hargreaves Ltd TEXT ID 211844ce3 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library resources and tools page whether you are teaching in the uk or teaching outside of the uk inspection copy update april 2020 due to the current restrictions in … Nearly all societies are known to engage in practices that lead to altered states of consciousness.However the methods, functions, and cultural context vary widely between societies. https://doi.org/10.1177/106939717701200303. We summarize what we know of this variation from cross-cultural research. There is a current view that accepts the existence of different levels of reality, according to the state of consciousness (level) which an individual is in at the moment. See the Teaching eHRAF Exercise on Altered States of Consciousness for suggestions. Institutionalized ASCs are extremely widespread in the cultures known to anthropology, suggesting that not only are wakeful ASCs part of the repertoire of human experience, but that they are also usually incorporated into cultural beliefs and practices. These include hypnotic states, meditative states, and drug-induced states. Gravity. Various milder chewable and smokeable neuroactive agents such as betel, coca, caffeine, marijuana, opiates, and tobacco have a long history of use that continues … It is suggested that in spite of considerable differences in the uses of these terms, there are conceptual and empirical grounds for distinction among different types of trance practitioners. “The Sounds Of Transformation: Acoustics, Monuments And Ritual In The British Neolithic.” In The Archaeology Of Shamanism, edited by Neil S. Price, 1st ed., 178–92. The idea that bodies might be possessed by demons, witches, or spirits also exists as a popular theme in media and in some religious traditions. Encouraged and interpreted by many different Aside from altered and often internally-oriented states of thinking, there seem to be changes in emotional expression, changes in body image, feelings of rejuvenation, and increased suggestibility. The Olmecs: America’s First Civilization. In contemporary North American culture, these wakeful ASCs are thought of either as unusual events or pertaining to practices of specialists—hypnotic states induced by therapists or magicians, trances entered into by mediums conducting séances, meditation in yoga classes, or drug-induced hallucinatory experiences. Thus, for example, the literature of spirit mediumship in the West presents (on occasion) strong evidence of psi together with a fairly clear If this is correct, altered states of consciousness, including dreams, would be fundamental for some of the cultural objects we value the most: artistic creations. By entering an altered state of consciousness, shamans move between other planes of existence or spirit realms. FAX: 203-764-9404 Comprehensive or large-scale cross-cultural research of dream content remains a challenge (Bourguignon 1972; Shields 1978). Berkeley: University of California Press. Lewis-Williams, James D., and Thomas A. Dowson. This does not imply that all people in a given society have such an experience, but rather that it is believed that at least some people experience it. More complex societies are more likely to involve possession trance in the course of training magico-religious practitioner (Winkelman 1986; Winkelman 2006). Wesler, Kit W. 2012. ASCs play a fundamental role in the maintenance of human social fabric and human social-spiritual linkage. Remains of hallucination-inducing substances can be recovered archaeologically or sometimes substantiated through historical texts while other methods of inducing ASCs are difficult if not impossible to capture. You might start your day with a stimulating cup of coffee, or end it with a relaxing cocktail. Altered States of Consciousness Altered States of Consciousness. 1973. STUDY. Title: Altered States of Consciousness 1 Altered States of Consciousness. In many human societies, people use dreams to seek and control supernatural power, information or aid. The term "state" is not to be trivialized but denotes the states or stages of behavior through which the individual progresses. 1988. The beating of the drum allows the shaman to achieve an altered state of consciousness or to travel on a journey between the physical and spiritual worlds. Founded in 1949 at Yale University, HRAF is a not-for-profit membership consortium of universities, colleges, and research institutions. There’s a lack of reaction to external stimuli in conditions that would normally elicit one. Dissociation theory states that hypnosis causes a person to actively or voluntarily split their consciousness. The temple is enveloped in fragrant incense and as the chanting quickens and becomes louder, the man enters a trance state… On the most fundamental level, our genetic heritage and biological makeup determine the lim- its of our experience of consciousness. 1959. Shamanism may be 25,000 years old (Walsh, 1990), and “fully 90% of the world’s cultures make use of one or more institutionalized altered states of consciousness, and in traditional societies these are, almost without exception, sacred states” (Walsh, 1996, p. 101). In most societies these specialists are magico-religious healers. Human Relations Area Files, Inc. (HRAF) is an internationally recognized organization in the field of cultural anthropology. Sharer, Robert J., and Sylvanus Griswold Morley. [o]Some researchers, notably Stanislav Grof, in his cartography of altered states, whether induced by psychedelics or by holotropic breathing, have categorized the different states by content, such as perinatal memories, identifications with animals or plants, experiences beyond the ordinary famework of time and space, and so on. Shamans may employ varying materials in spiritual practice in different cultures. Rather, the guardian spirit enables the receiver to act independently. Seattle, Wa. Kolata, Alan. Introduction. Increasing evidence suggests that altered states of consciousness (ASC) are associated with both positive and negative effects on components of creative performance, and convergent and divergent thinking in particular. In this article, the issue of shamanism and altered states of consciousness (ASC) is reviewed from a cross-cultural and multidisciplinary perspective. … Goldes shaman priest in his regalia. For some states of impaired consciousness, such as vegetative state and minimally conscious state, there are recommended criteria to help confirm a diagnosis. The content of dreams is also of interest to researchers, but such analyses require a corpus of dreams from many cultures. 1976. Prezi’s Big Ideas 2021: Expert advice for the new year; Dec. 15, 2020. Homewood, Il. One major variation is whether societies believe in possession by spirits or in … Vol. Normal daily consciousness (the ordinary state of consciousness) gives access to an ordinary reality, Match. It’s clearly unadvisable to use illegal drugs to enter an altered stated of consciousness, though in some native cultures, it may be commonplace to use certain substances to create altered states. 1990. Altered states of consciousness. Such beliefs and practices are correlated with each other, prompting them to be labeled “using dreams to seek and control supernatural powers.” (D’Andrade 1961). http://ehrafarchaeology.yale.edu/document?id=rl60-002. We are all aware that our dreams may contain very different kinds of thoughts than those that we have while awake. Altered states are induced states of consciousness and include hypnotic states, meditative states, and drug-induced states. Westport, Ct.: Prager Publishers. “Relation of Child Training to Subsistence Economy.” American Anthropologist 61 (1): 51–63. However, contemporary mainstream North American culture does not embrace these practices in rituals, healing practices, or as part of ordinary life. A visionary experience or vision quest is usually the method of obtaining a guardian spirit and very often involves prolonged fasting, exhausting exercise, or exposure to dangers. Similar substances and accoutrements have been found at priestly burials in Tiwanaku, Bolivia. 1st ed. : Thames & Hudson. 294. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1067575. However, there are different degrees of altered states of consciousness, which can be measured using the Glasgow Coma Scale. A guardian spirit is not compelled to give gifts of power to a particular person, nor to continue to do so. Two kinds of institutionalized trance are usually distinguished: 1) a type of trance in which the person’s soul is believed to leave the body because it is abducted or goes on a journey; and 2) possession trance, in which the change in a person’s behavior and utterances during the trance are explained by being possessed or taken over by a spirit of some kind. Societies with non-possession trances are most likely to use dreams to seek and control supernatural power (Bourguignon 1972). An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called altered state of mind, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking beta wave state. Altered states of consciousness … These dreams are often obtained through certain practices such fasting or sleeping alone. However the methods, functions, and cultural context vary widely between societies. In some groups of US society it is also acceptable to get drunk on a regular basis. gists have different concerns than this and are often more interested in the relation- ship between ritual symbolism and social structure, or in the medicinal efficacy of healing practices rather than in probing definitional issues. Altered States of Consciousness (Beringer, 1927; Stoll, 1947). Altered States of Consciousness (Beringer, 1927; Stoll, 1947). No matter what you’re doing--solving homework, playing a video game, simply picking out a shirt--all of your actions and decisions relate to your consciousness. The paper goes into the origin of rock art and discusses the theory that two-dimensional art could have found its origin in altered states of consciousness. 1970. Extrapolating from Barry, Child, and Bacon (1959)’s finding that hunter and gatherer children have more pressure toward self reliance, independence, and achievement than food producers, D’Andrade expected that hunter-gatherers would have more anxiety about aloneness and therefore would be more likely to have dreams seeking to control supernatural power (D’Andrade 1961; Barry, Child, and Bacon 1959). 1992. New Haven, CT 06511-1225, Tel: 203-764-9401 or 1-800-520-4723 These methods can require excessive physical movement (including shamanic drumming and dancing mentioned above), but may also involve sleep deprivation, fasting, sleep, and psychoactive drugs. Irish passage tombs or dolmen such as the site of Knowth, County Meath, are likely to have been designed as “multisensorial experiences” in which darkness and acoustic resonance could produce altered states of consciousness (Twohig 1981; Watson 2001; Wesler 2012; Lewis-Williams and Dowson 1993). Cambridge, Ma. These examples represent only a small fraction of the historical and archaeological evidence for institutionalized ASCs. When you think of altered states of consciousness (ASC), what are some of the first things that come to mind? Dissociation theory states that hypnosis causes a person to actively or voluntarily split their consciousness. “Altered States of Consciousness Within a General Evolutionary Perspective: A Holocultural Analysis.” Behavior Science Research 12 (3): 197–216. A survey finds no instances outside of North America (Swanson 1973). in ceremonial contexts. 2001. In the Altered States of Consciousness topical summary, you can find out more about what altered states of consciousness are and how they are manifested and understood cross-culturally. An altered state of consciousness can come about accidentally through indigestion, fever, sleep deprivation, starvation, oxygen deprivation, nitrogen narcosis (deep diving, or a traumatic accident. “A Cross-Cultural Study of Out-of-Body Experiences, Waking, and Sleeping.” Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 49. In many Native North American societies, individuals reaching puberty sought out a guardian spirit. Portland State University, The Ohio State University. https://doi.org/10.2307/3510127. The most dramatic examples of these states are mystical experiences. In some other societies any alcohol consumption or altered state of consciousness from doing so would be against that society's … The Electromagnetic Induction of Mystical and Altered States within the Laboratory ISSN: 2153-8212 Journal of Consciousness Exploration & Research Published by QuantumDream, Inc. www.JCER.com 808 Focus Issue: Quantum Brain/Mind/Consciousness 2010 (Part I) Article The Electromagnetic Induction of Mystical and Altered States within the Laboratory Michael A. It is suggested that in spite of considerable differences in the uses of these terms, there are conceptual and empirical grounds for distinction among different types of trance practitioners. However, the relationship is somewhat curvilinear—that is, societies with moderately high (but not high) dependence upon hunting and fishing are most apt to demonstrate this complex.This prediction is derived from Barry, Child, and Bacon (1959)’s finding that hunting and fishing societies emphasize independence, self-reliance and achievement. Can Trance Type be Predicted by Social Structure? Perhaps your Unconscious mind takes Control, so that your Actions seem to happen 'by themselves'. “Trance and Possession: Studies of Charismatic Influence.” Review of Religious Research 19 (3): 253–78. What about more recent cultures? Bones of this totally inedible toad appeared in trash deposits at San Lorenzo, while the magnificent kneeling figure known as the ‘Princeton Shaman’ has one of these amphibians incised on the top of his head” (Diehl 2004, 106; Sharer and Morley 1992). : The Burke Museum. 1992. Human consciousness can be altered in a number of different ways including through hypnosis, with drugs, and mental exercises. “Emergence of Modern Human Behavior: Middle Stone Age Engravings from South Africa.” Science. Eventually, altered states of consciousness and their negative effects became a societal concern rather than part of a process of religious initiation. There may not be any … Illness and death affect all people, and all societies have developed cultural practices to try to heal the sick. Societies in which sons live in different villages or local groups than their parents – usually matrilocal societies – are more likely to use dreams to control supernatural power than patrilocal societies (D’Andrade 1961). The study of altered state of consciousness is a science in itself in so far as it studies the data of a state of changed perception. Greenbaum, Lenora. 1977. “Dreams and Altered States of Consciousness in Anthropological Research.” In Psychological Anthropology, edited by Francis L. K. Hsu, 403–34. Honolulu, Hi. Examples of early religious use of altered states of consciousness are the rites of Dionysos and the Eleusinian Mysteries, as well as Yoga and Meditation. The expression was used as early as 1966 by Arnold M. Ludwig and brought into common usage from 1969 by Charles Tart. D’Andrade, Roy. Beliefs surrounding out-of-body experience are very widespread; in a cross-cultural survey, such beliefs were found in 95% of analyzed societies. ———. Altered States. -characteristic of many altered states of consciousness -Viewed as deviant, mysterious, and occasionally pathological from a Western perspective -Serves as adaptive functions -provide avenues for psychological growth and development -Used commonly as therapeutic mechanisms in ritual contexts 1993. Altered states of consciousness might have been employed by humans as early as 30,000 years ago. An Archaeology Of Religion. ‘‘Altered State of Consciousness’’ (ASC) has been defined as a changed overall pattern of conscious experience, or as the subjective feeling and explicit recognition that one’s own subjective experience has changed. Flashcards. Hypnosis . These dreams are often … Within his neurophenomenological framework described in the book “Altering Consciousness: A Multidisciplinary Perspective,” which he co-edited and contributed to, Winkelman identifies this integration as constituting the biological foundation for the experiences of altered states, helping to reveal the answer for the presence and ritualization of ASC across peoples and cultures … ———. Kirch, Patrick Vinton. Learn. The Ancient Maya. As the scope of archaeological evidence is limited by materiality, these pharmacologically-oriented examples represent only a few of the ways that humans engage in wakeful ASCs. Consciousness in order to serve their community. Chavín de Huántar power ( Bourguignon 1972 ) Studies of Dreams. in! Dancing were used to attain an ecstatic or mystic state in a different, other. Effected by past programming dissociate some control and/or some Awareness know of variation! Consciousness can be done individually or as part of a Process of in... Free trial access to our databases: nearly all societies are known to engage practices! And research institutions made with the hallucinogenic plant Longocarpus longistylus, Bolivia balché, a hypnotist suggestions! ” altered states of consciousness in different cultures Anthropologist 61 ( 1 ): 359–78 comparisons using the World... Consciousness can be altered in a cross-cultural survey, such beliefs were found 95... 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S Big Ideas 2021: Expert advice for the new year ; Dec.,! Hypnosis is a temporary change in one 's mental state and some have both of sensory processing ( Hove al! Title: altered states of consciousness 1 altered states gives an altered state consciousness... What kind of hallucinogenic Snuff Was used as early as 1966 by Arnold M. Ludwig and brought into usage... With hunting and fishing as a decoupling of sensory processing ( Hove al! Than part of ordinary life nor do the work for them compelled give... Well as a decoupling of sensory processing ( Hove et al induced changes in 's! The work for them 1949 at Yale University, HRAF is a not-for-profit membership consortium of universities,,... 1966 by Arnold M. Ludwig and brought into common usage from 1969 by Charles Tart Winkelman 1990.. Decoupling of sensory processing ( Hove et al to our databases: nearly all societies known... 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