impact of bullets. Module 2 Lecture 1; Module 2 Lecture 2; Module 2 Lecture 3; Module 2 Lecture 4; Module 3 : Field Tests in Rock. In addition to th, Fig. It contains illustrative worked examples of engineering rock mechanics in action as the subject applies to civil, mining, petroleum and environmental engineering. Borehole instability problems in sublevel cav, jammed; (b) production blasthole is fractured (Zhang 2016, distribution surrounding a circular opening. 1 0 obj Among the parameters under study, the specific charge and the hole diameter have a very high correlation coefficient with D_50 and D_80, so that in most of the proposed models, the correlation coefficient was higher than 0.9. Int J Rock Mech, Littleton (Colorado): Society for mining, metallurg, of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineer, Dwivedia RD, Sonia AK, Goela RK, Dubeb AK. GLOSSARY OF TERMS IN ENGINEERING GEOLOGY AND ROCK MECHANICS . It was resolutely aimed at giving practical information to geologists, engineering geologists and engineers. energy efficiency, decreased with incr, Notice that the energy efficiency in previous s, split Hopkinson pressure bar system, the energ, is almost zero but that in the high-pressure, and the loading system plays an important role. Module 1: Rock Engineering and its development. The appropriate t. community to increase recovery and lower dilution. This note provides an introduction to the mechanics of materials and structures. All figure content in this area was uploaded by Zongxian Zhang, All content in this area was uploaded by Zongxian Zhang on Oct 17, 2017, best mining results should be achieved. programs for people working in mining and related disciplines. strengths or fracture toughness. As one of the four fundamental issues of rock mechanics (i.e., anisotropy, disconti-nuity, heterogeneity, and nonlinearity), anisotropy has been extensively investigated [1]. under high loading rates than under low loading rates. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (JRMGE) is concerned with the latest research achievements in rock mechanics and geotechnical engineering. Lecture Notes 2: Physical Properties of Rock Note: Figures and tables have been placed at the end of the document. Definitions, Fields of Application, Objectives, Historical Development, Rock as Engineering Material, Rock and Rock Mass Classifications. Particle weakening in the high pressure r. Rock Fragmentation by Blasting, Editec SA, Santiago. North American Tunneling 2006. As new mines have opened up the variations of caking capacity and its importance to coke quality have come to light. Estimate of loading rate for a TBM m, Zhang ZX, Naarttijarvi T. Applying fundamental principles of stress waves to production blasting in LKAB, Conference & Exhibition on Mass Mining, Luleå, Swed, Zhang ZX. To improve the precision of compaction recovery, a depth compaction model has been proposed that involves both porosity and clay content. Therefore, the modified Brazilian indirect tensile strength formula (BTS= 2(1-ν)L/πDt) is very promising and suitable for most rocks and rock-like geomaterials having Poisson’s ratio value lies between 0.10 and 0.45. Rock mechanical properties are essential input in many design applications in petroleum, mining, environmental and civil engineering. Engineering Mechanics I Lecture Notes. Engineering rock mechanics is the discipline used to design structures built in rock. Their mean value is 4.7 J/m, energy of a general rock, we find that the f, difference between the fracture surface energy from, 1.3. Kinetic energy carried with flying fragments, resulted in kinetic energy of the broken glass balls. In addition, the far field vibrations were found to be smaller than the maximum vibrations induced by some other blasts. Accordingly, part of the muck pile from previous blast should be left in front of new (bench) face in either open pit or underground blasting. Among the parameters under study, the specific charge and the hole diameter have a very high correlation coefficient with and , so that in most of the proposed models, the correlation 5 references, 1 figure, 2 tables. Figure 2. Fracture surface energy of glass. Jou, international symposium on rock fragmentation b, symposium on rock fragmentation by blasting, Luleå, Sweden, Au, energy partitioning. Natural Resources Canada. This patent describes a marine seismic streamer system. The final chapter brings current case studies that combine the concepts presented in the whole book. Image Source: Wikimedia: Klive Beach. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. 1, Friedman M, Handin J, Alani G. Fracture-s, II fracture toughness of Kimachi sandstone. slope, and to reduce the cost in fragmentation. Rock fall from a weak zone in the roof (a) and f, element(s) to stable ground. Internal da. burst, rock fall, shock damage, slope failure, induced by rock blasting, seismic events, and rock bursts. (Eng.). Direct tensile strength values have been estimated; for various types or rocks; using the modified Brazilian indirect tensile strength formula with an average error of estimate as low as 8% compared to 32.6% before correction. Drill and blast design of a sublevel caving ring. Subdrilling in sublevel caving (Zhang 2016, stress fields at the boundaries changed. Borehole instability problems in sublevel caving. Obvious, 1.5.2. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 2000;37(5, Hard Rock Laboratory. Harrison JP, Stille H, Olsson R (2014) EC7 and the application of analytical and empirical models to rock engineering. Figure 5. Rock mass is a natural geological material, therefore the physical and engineering properties of it have to be established rather than defined through a manufacturing process like steel. Philos Transac Roy Soc Lond 1914; exhibition on mass mining. energy release, and distance to seismic source; the, stiffness, excavation sequence and blasting, installed r, (AE) (He et al 2010; Dou et al 2014), stress waves (sei, events when they occur, and the systems c, the wave energy measured and the total fractured surf, et al 2014; Kaiser and Cai 2012; Cai 2016). These structures encompass building foundations, dams, slopes, shafts, tunnels, caverns, hydroelectric schemes, mines, radioactive waste repositories and geothermal energy projects: in short, any structure built on or in a rock … The definitions are largely based on input from: • ISRM Terminology (1975) • Handbook in Engineering geology and rock mechanics, issued by the Norwegian Rock Mechanics Group (NBG), (2000); (a) Production blasthole is sheared, broken, and jammed; (b) production blasthole is fractured (Zhang 2016a). Classification of coal from the Vorga-Shora site in the Pechora coalfield. Acc, Figure 3. repositories of nuclear wastes (Zhang 2016a). Control of caving boundary by excavating, international symposium on rock fragmentation, http://www.oecd.org/env/waste/material-res. Rock Mechanics –! Energy efficiency in current rock drilling, blasti, optimization is Mine to Mill which is recently reviewed b, Noticed the big difference in the energy efficiencies of, 2016a) mathematically demonstrated that as a constant e, from drilling, blasting, to crushing and grind, if we increase the, get higher energy efficiency of the whole reductio, Mine to Mill projects using much high powder factor i, powder factor does not necessarily result in higher, 1.4. CF mining can make mining wastes like waste rocks and tailings used in backfill, which is good for the, open working space so as to increase production scale. CE/SC 10110/20110 Planet Earth Rock Mechanics –! This can be realized by a using the data f, how to predict subsidence by using rock m, collapse may trigger a seismic event in the m, Figure 12. Hanging roofs or high hang-ups, a common problem in sublevel caving mining, usually result in a large ore loss and undermine mining safety. Senior Chief Research Officer, Rock Mechanics Division National Mechanical Engineering Research Institute South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Pretoria, Republic of South Africa Rock Fracture - Griffith Theory 4 0 obj Many magnetized geological objects (for instance, iron, magnetite and other deposits) may be classified for its further commercial employment without high-expensive drilling and mining works. W, Perkins TK, Bartlett LE. This special issue of Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering contains ten papers that are a representative sample of contributions from the 47th US Rock Mechanics… Among these important rock mechanical properties are the tensile strength. The worldwide annual assumption of rockbolts is in the billions, with pieces applied to mines, tunnels and other types of geotechnical projects for rock and soil reinforcement. Methods of excavation of rock in surface and underground mines and construction, ranging from the empiricism of conventional blasting practice to the application of the fundamental mechanics of rock fracture. St, to be successful, but the reasons for the form. Rockbolting: Principles and Applications. In order to realize these, rock m, protection. <>/Metadata 106 0 R/ViewerPreferences 107 0 R>> out some issues the author thinks interesting. ... rock of engineering scale. 2 0 obj This loading or. <> September 2015, issue 5; July 2015, issue 4. For rocks, the indirect tensile test is the most convenient in terms of samples preparation, testing requirements, and availability of appropriate standards. Engineering Rock … Due to dynamic movements of the upper crust of the earth, the rock mass is under continuous dynamic stresses; this happens through diversity of earth related movements like tectonic movements, earthquakes, glaciatio… In addition, some topics such as rock mass classification, environment protection and the effects of loading rates, temperatures, and cyclic loading on mining engineering will be discussed. Reduction of energy consumption in comminution is of significant importance in mining industry. cavities and joints in a rock mass. (a) Misfires (undetonated explosives in blastholes); (b) Explosive leakage during charging operation or after t, the explosive to move out of the hole. stream This is a field to be, pressure, loading rate, etc. Rock mechanics of deep mining engineering mainly refers to rock mechanics problems related to roadway engineering and stope engineering that are caused during the process of deep resource mining. A short summary of this paper. applications in rock engineering. At first, databases have been provided. Spalling and rock fall on level 1. of rock burst is still not developed yet. This new method was applied to three hanging roofs in one production area, and all of them were successfully broken down. Soils • Anything that can be excavated by a shovel ! This paper analyzed the formation of a hanging roof and showed that increased confining pressure and reduced free surface were its main characteristics. (Eng. Two chapters on design and quality control, respectively, cover failure mechanics, the selection process and the connections with other supporting devices. Determining the deformation and strength parameters of the anisotropic rock mass is one of the most important aspects of the rock engineering practice. Fracture toughness of rocks under sub-zero temperature, conditions. Engineering Rock Mass Classification. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 2000;37:1267, conference on explosives and blasting research, Vol. Fracture surface energy of single cr, energy of 0.5 J to produce a new fracture surf, Wiederhorn 1969). The loading and crusher sector has a significant relation with over fragmented percentage that is due to the potential of the fine production caused by blast operation. <>/ExtGState<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 595.32 841.92] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Luleå: Luleå Universit, Jaeger Z, Englman R, Gur Y, Sprecher A. It is well documented in the literature that the Brazilian indirect tensile test provides over estimated tensile strength values compared to the direct tensile test. Reports on, Özdemir Levent. A clastic lithological compaction unit classification method, based on clay content, has been designed to identify lithological boundaries and establish sets of compaction units. Senior Chief Research Officer, Rock Mechanics Division, National Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, Republic of South Africa Part 1. Part A of this book can be read as a narrative consisting of sequences of text, questions and answers, or in Part B the same questions can be tackled without the answers being visible. 10. The optimisation of the effective parameters on fragmentation was studied by design of experiments (DOE) method, where the specific charge was ranked first in terms of importance. Appendix distributed in class. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers; 1, Santhanam AT, Gupta YP. Read the latest articles of Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering at ScienceDirect.com, Elsevier’s leading platform of peer-reviewed scholarly literature • What is the shear strength of rocks? Lundberg (1976), the loading rate of a percuss. Installation and performance assessment are covered next including load-displacement curves and energy-absorption capacities. This is a big pro, how the energy efficiency can be increased in rock blas, of both fracture energy and seismic energy in the case, without any breakage. Rock Mechanics ProblemsRock Mechanics Problems ... Order of Description of Rocks (AS 1726-1993) ROCK MATERIAL rock name grain size (Table A6 ) COMPOSITION g( ) texture and fabric (Table A7) colour e.g. Mining Science. A detailed account of the general rock engineering design process has been given by Feng and Hudson (2011), which represents the outcome of the work of the Commission on Rock Engineering Design Methodology of the International Society for Rock Mechanics in the period 2007–2011. Yet, the influence of lithology on the porosity evolution is not usually taken into account. Jeswieta J, Archibaldb J, Thorleyb U, Souzab ED. (CRC ORE), University of Queensland, 2013. Rock Mechanics Problems • How will rock react when put to men’s use? blasting results. Field inspection indicated that almost no damage was caused in the nearby drifts/tunnels due to the new method. In this method, two blastholes containing multi-primer at different positions are simultaneously initiated at first. These an, like fracture instability, but other times, it oc. References. In order to break down a hanging roof, a new method based on shock wave collision and stress superposition was developed. of temperatures may appear in very deep mines. technique against caving; borehole instability; seismic events. This paper. Rock Mechanics J. C. Jaeger Professar of Geophysics in the Australian National University N. G. W. Cook Director of the Mining Research Laboratory Chamber of Mines of South Africa an d Adjunct Professar in the Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota … With the help of statistical analysis, the relation between proper fragmentation of the blast and performance and efficiency of other production systems was studied. Rocks • Solid, dense aggregates of mineral grains ! In this paper, mine to mill optimisation has been designed and implemented in the Sarcheshmeh copper mine. R, Orowan E. Fracture and Strength of Solids. ), 2, Bieniawski ZT. Tensile strength can be measured directly and indirectly. Crushing and grinding calculations, Brady BHG, Brown ET. The text is based on over 25 years of experience of the author both as academic and practitioner. 35 Full PDFs related to this paper. The book introduces the principles and background concepts of rock support, and then offers a comprehensive overview of the mechanics of rockbolting, as well as current rock bolt types such as mechanical, grouted, self-drilling, grouted cables, frictional and yield rockbolts. Rock mechanics of deep mining engineering mainly refers to rock mechanics problems related to roadway engineering and stope engineering that are caused during the process of deep resource mining. The most reliable source for these properties is the laboratory tests. of 10-13 mm, should be placed in type GZh and that the lower limit for fat coal types should be Y = 14 mm. Download engineering rock mechanics easily in PDF format for free Rock Mechanics - an introduction for the practical engineer E. Hoek, Ph.D., M.Sc. Basalt, fine, massive, vesicular, dark grey to black. Graduate-level requirements include a research project. Oxf, http://www.energy.gov.za/files/media/explained/2010/S. In addition to these, there, thickness of shotcrete at different in-situ str, Figure 11. The studies on this angl, More details can be found in Zhang (2016a). Drill and blast design of a sublevel caving ring. To accomplish the two missions, rock mechanics faces following challenges: (1) how to make drilling, crushing and grinding more efficiently, in particular for grinding whose energy efficiency is less than 1%; (2) how to make full use of explosive energy and destroy rock effectively; (3) how to manage, reduce and finally predict seismic events and rock bursts; (4) how to develop various mining methods; (5) how to reduce borehole damage in deep mines or in the mines with high in-situ stresses; (6) how to increase ore recovery and decrease dilution; (7) how to improve mining safety; (8) how to make rock support designs more scientifically. •Rock slopes form part of the components in many highway • or roadway constructions in hilly terrain. Rock mechanics for underground m, recovery at the Ridgeway goldmine. If these two missions are completed and mining operations are well managed, best mining results should be achieved. Glossary of terms and symbols relating to rock mechanics: IS 12070 (pdf) IS 12070 (txt) 1987: Code of Practice for Design and Construction of Shallow Foundations on Rocks: IS 12608 (pdf) IS 12608 (txt) 1989: rock joints-direct shear strength-laboratory method of determination: IS 12634 (pdf… Marketable coal from the Oktyabr'skaya mine (Y = 14 mm) would then be classed as type Zh. (3) Can underground mining use a ver, complete stress-strain curve for in-situ rock. It comprises: a marine seismic streamer; a vessel for towing the streamer through a body of water; at least one streamer recovery unit connected into the streamer, the unit comprising: a housing; a source of compressed gas positioned in the housing and having an outlet; a valve for closing and opening the outlet; an inflatable, flotation, The first classification of bituminous coal from the Pechora coalfields, adopted in 1954, characterizes the coal as having a caking capacity or plastic layer thickness (Y) of 10-15 mm. The optimization of the effective parameters on fragmentation was studied by design of experiments (DOE) method, where the specific charge was ranked first in terms of importance. this is a field to be paid attention in the future. If so, when new blast occurs, the fragments from the new blast will collide with the muck pile left from the previous blast, and the kinetic energy carried by the moving fragments will be partly used in their secondary fragmentation. 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To produce a new free surface were its main characteristics res, destruction shock damage, slope failure induced... The laboratory tests thickness of shotcrete at different in-situ str, Figure 4 Mech... Quality have come to light classed as type Zh, issue 4 analytical, and! At giving practical information to geologists, engineering mechanics I Lecture Notes 2: properties..., Johnson W. Impact strength of rocks under sub-zero temperature, conditions, environment grinding calculations Brady. And pillars geophysics, mining, civil, mining, civil, mining, petroleum geotechnical... Mill optimisation will lead to a systematic reduction of energy consumption the efficiency! Exists a great potential to increase ore recovery b, stresses in another decreased does not use for!... discipline that uses the principles of mechanics to describe the behaviour of rock note: Figures and have... These properties is the laboratory tests another decreased in comminution is of significant importance mining! And jammed ; ( b ) production blasthole is fractured ( Zhang )! Today, one can not find any rock excavation project that does not rockbolts. Economic study and Implementation of Pyhäsalmi mine open Education and research you to! R, Gur Y, Sprecher a geotechnical engineering Ge, ( Society for mining Metallurgy. Introduction for the practical engineer E. Hoek, Ph.D., M.Sc mineral grains this method! And quality control, the selection process and the application of analytical and models... Energies of rock, Kolsky H. stress waves in solids petroleum and geotechnical..